TOPIC: The Challenges of Russian Contemporary Engagements in Southern African States 1991-2019




Challenges, Russia, renew interests, engagements, nuclear energy, Perestroika, Glasnost, Post-Cold War, new international order and Great Fear, Hyper-Power, unique policeman.


          This paper deals with the challenges of Russian relations with thirty years of Russo- Southern African relations between 1991 and 2019, following the closure of several diplomatic services and questionable engagements of nuclear extension in the region with a hiding agenda of the 21st Century. Her incapacity to continue running some of  her embassies in the region was due to lack of financial resources which resulted from the collapse of  the  Cold War and disintegration of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) into Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in 1991.The devastated  Russian economy could only left her behind unrealistic foreign agenda that was perfectly destroyed by Mikhail Gorbachev’s hasty declaration of Glasnost and Perestroika as  new international norms which facilitated the United States of America (U.S.A) to re-gain a unique prominent position as the Policeman of the World. This meant that Russian engagements with Sub-Saharan African countries were now in a handicap and dangerous stance towards the 21st Century. What then constituted Soviet Union’s lateness of foreign policy initiative towards Africa’s, challenges of the 1990s and new patterns of Russian relations and initiatives of exploiting natural resources and setting up of nuclear agenda in Southern African States are the main concerns of this study. With the adoption of a historical approach, the scrutiny of specialised sources concerning this question enabled us to come out with finding that, contemporary Russian attempt to aggressively  reinforce relations with specific Southern African countries pave the way forward of  Great Fear in case of any nuclear war in the 21st Century. That Southern and Central African leaders of Sub-Saharan Africa should be aware that the previous Cold War Super-Power competition was over but it took a new form in the face of a unique Hyper- Power position dominated by the United States in the Post-Cold War era which the crumbled Russia is recently bend to correct some of her mistakes through deeper penetration of main strategic zones of Africa as a means of preparing and multiplying her networks of attacks and defense in the Atlantic and India Oceans. This engagement with the Southern African Development Community (SADC) is very pertinent after thirty years of the collapsed of USSR and new orientations in international relations and international political economy with the challenges of the 21st Century Unite States.and China Hyper-economic positions in the global economic system with U.S Hyper-Power position in international politics as a unique policeman of the World.


Download data is not yet available.



A Handbook on the History of the Communist Party and the Soviet Union 1898 - 1991. Russian). 4 February 2014.

Andrew Wilson, Virtual Politics: Faking Democracy in the Post-Soviet World (Yale University Press: New Haven, 2005.

Andrew S. Weiss, Eugene Rumer , Nuclear Enrichment: Russia’s Ill-Fated Influence Campaign in South Africa, December 16, 2019. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2020.

Alexander V. Kozhemiakin, ?Roger E. Kanet , The Foreign Policy of the Russian Federation, › books, Political Science, 2006.

Brown Archie, The Rise and Fall of Communism , New York: Ecco, 2009.

--------- (1996). The Gorbachev Factor. Oxford University Press.

Campbell, John, Putin’s Russia and Africa, August 13, 2015.

Giovanni Faleg, Stanislav Secrieru, Russia's forays into sub-Saharan Africa: Do you want to be my friend, again? 31 March 2020.

Irina Filatova and Apollon Davidson, The Hidden Thread: Russia and South Africa in the Soviet Era, Johannesburg, Jonathan Ball Publishers, 2013.

Ivan Loshkarev, International Security, Russia's Foreign Policy, Education and Science,

Society and Culture, Economy, MGIMO-University.

Lowenhardt, John; van Ree, Erik; Ozinga, James, The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Politburo. St Martin's Press, 1992

Milene Charles, The Soviet Union and Africa: the History of the Involvement (United Press of America: Washington, 1980.

Névine Schepers, Russian Incentives for Nuclear Hopefuls in Africa, 30th April 2018, online, consulted, August 16, 2020.

Priestland David, The Red Flag: Communism and the Making of the Modern World , London, Allen Lane/Penguin Books, 2009.

Robert Service, Comrades! A History of World Communism, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007.

Rudiger Ahrend &William Tompson, Unnatural Monopoly: The Endless Wait for Gas Sector Reform in Russia, online: 05 October 2010.

Radu, Michael, The Dynamics of Soviet Policy in Sub-Saharan Africa (New York: Holmes and Meier,

R. Cooper , Economic Aspects of the Cold War, 1962-1975 , Harvard DASH, › bitstream › handle.

Smith, Gordon, Soviet Politics: Continuity and Contradictions (2nd ed.). St. Martin's Press, 1991.

Stoessinger John G. , The Might of Nations: World Politics in Our Time, 9th ed. McGraw

-Hill Publishing Company, New York, 1990.

Theo Neethling, Russia Steps up Efforts to Fill Gaps Left by America’s Waning Interest in Africa, October 29, 2019.

Walter Walker, The Bear at the Back Door , Foreign Affairs Publishing, Richmond, 1978.


Anton Eberhard & Amory Lovins, South Africa's Electricity Choice, Part 4: The danger... › article.

Brown, Archie, "The Gorbachev Era". In Suny, Ronald Grigor (ed.). The Cambridge History of Russia, Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Clement, Peter. “The USSR and Sub-Saharan Africa: A Balance Sheet.” The Soviet Union in the Third World. Ed. Carol R. Saivetz , Boulder: Westview, 1989.

Darya Korsunskaya, Tom Balmforth, Russia lands nuclear bombers in Africa as Putin hosts continent's leaders, October 23, 2019.

McDonough, Terrence, "Lenin, Imperialism, and the Stages of Capitalist Development"In Science & Society. 59 (3). Guilford Press, 1995, pp. 339–367.

Lih, Lars T. "The Soviet Union and the Road to Communism". In Suny, Ronald Grigor (ed.). The Cambridge History of Russia. 3. Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Kimberly Marten, “Into Africa: Prigozhin, Wagner, and the Russian Military”, PONARS Eurasia Policy Memo, no. 561, January, 2019,

Janos Besenyo, Óbudai Egyetem, “The Africa Policy of Russia, Terrorism and Political Violence », 31(1):132-153 · January 2019, Russia in Africa: A new arena for geopolitical competition › thinktank › document.

Mehmet Cem O?ultürk, “Russia’s Renewed Interests in the Horn of Africa As a Traditional and Rising Power”, In Rising Power Quarterly, Volume 2, Issue 1 (Russia’s Dual Roles in Global Politics as a Traditional Great Power and a Rising Power), February. 2017, pp. 121-143.


Anton Eberhard & Amory Lovins, South Africa's Electricity Choice, Part 4: The danger... › article.

Alexander Winning, “Russia’s Putin Raises Nuclear Deal at Ramaphosa Meeting During BRICS,” Reuters, July 30, 2018,

Reliance on Russian gas has big risks for Europe | Financial ... › content

mars 2019 - The EU has alternatives to putting its energy future in Moscow's hands. ... Emerging Markets · Europe · Americas · Middle East and North Africa ... Reliance on Russian gas has big risks for Europe ... New transmission infrastructure and ... Consulted September 10, 2020.

Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Burkina Faso , Foreign relations of Burkina Faso - › wiki › Foreign_r... 5 décember. 2018.

US reopens diplomatic mission in Somalia after 28-year ... › news › world-africa...

THE CHANGING PATTERN OF THE FOREIGN POLICY OF › articulo. Russia's Africa Policy - The Web site cannot be found › isn

The Return of Russia-Africa Relations - SAM | Center for › pdfs › 2.pdf

Russia's Plans to Develop Africa's Energy Sector – Ispi, › pubblicazione

nov. 2019 -

Russian Interests in Sub-Saharan Africa – jstor › stable › resrep11667

List of diplomatic missions of Russia – Wikipedia, › wiki › List_of_di...

Lesotho–Russia relations – Wikipedia, › wiki › Lesotho–...

South Africa’s Future Energy Mix – Wind, Solar And Coal, But No Nuclear, 5 November 2019,

South Africa's Future Energy Mix - Wind, Solar and Coal, but No › south-africas-fut...

Russia Offers to Expand Nuclear Power in Africa, › russia-offers..

Russian incentives for nuclear hopefuls in Africa, › analysis › 2018/04

Kester Kenn Klomegah , Africa awaits Russia’s investment , July 17, 2019.

févr. 2008 - currency for the Soviet Union was exports of oil, whose price rose ... against South Africa (1962), Portugal (1963), and Rhodesia (1965).8. de - ?2003.

John F. Kennedy and African Independence | JFK Library › jfk-in-history

President Kennedy recognized, in the ever-present context of Cold War politics, that Africa ... there was no doubt which side would be chosen by the Soviet .

Russia Offers to Exoand Nuclear Power in…

World War 3 news, predictions, date, coming, events | Express ... › latest

World War 3, also known as the Third World War, refers to the next possible worldwide military ... ukraine russia ready assault joe biden world war 3 news ont ...

The Saker, How Russia Is Preparing for World War III, 26 mai 2016.

Are Russia, France and the U.S. preparing for World War III ... › Are-Russia-France-and-the-U-...

Russia lands nuclear bombers in Africa as Putin hosts ... › article › u...

If Russia started World War III, here's how it would go down › if-r...

sept. 2017 — If Russia started World War III, here's how it would go down. Todd South ... If drawn into a war against Russia, U.S. and NATO forces would first begin ... to accept that those states are now in the Russian orbit, said retired Army Maj. ... in fact be overwhelmed in the event of an attack,” said retired Army Maj.

Collaboration with South Africa contributes to the creation of the multipolar world order and strengthens Russia's position in such global governance institutions as the G-20, IMF and the World Trade Organization (WTO). It also helps to create global legitimacy of the multipolar system of international relations.

Russia–South Africa Relations: Collaboration in BRICS and ... › Publications

Allan Du Toit , Russia’s southern strategyThe pace of Russian re-engagement in Africa and the Indian

Ocean region has accelerated as US influence has waned. 12 Nov 2019 11:00 Russia's southern strategy - Lowy Institute › russi...

Russia eyes more cooperation with Southern African ... - TASS › politics

Russia eyes more cooperation with Southern African Development Community ... and security in Southern Africa, highlighting their significance in the context of ...




How to Cite

FONJU , D. N. K. . (2021). TOPIC: The Challenges of Russian Contemporary Engagements in Southern African States 1991-2019. EPH - International Journal of Humanities and Social Science (ISSN: 2208-2174), 7(7), 01–17. Retrieved from