MORPHOLOGICAL, MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION AND CONTROL OF CYANOBACTERIA FROM WALL PAINTINGS AT NIAH, SARAWAK, TEMBURONG AND PERAK CAVES IN MALAYSIA

Authors

  • M. A. Aisha Al Jabal Al Gharbi University. Faculty of science, Zoology Department. Azintan – Libya
  • Fatma. M. A. El-Garj Al-zintan University. Faculty of science, Zoology Department. Azintan – Libya
  • W.O. Maznah School of Biological Sciences, University Sains Malaysia 11800 Penang. Malaysia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.53555/ephas.v1i1.1384

Keywords:

Malaysian caves, cyanobacteria, NaOCL, H2O2, Ca(OCl)2

Abstract

Malaysia is a country of numerous natural wonders, which include a collection of impressive cave formations. Found all over the country, these caves contain rock art and wall paintings. The samples were collected from wall surfaces painted caves of Niah, Sarawak, and Tempurung, Perak. Three cyanobacterial genera, have been characterized using a polyphasic approach by comparing phenotypic characteristics, using a light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Molecular characteristics, by confirmed their identification based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The microflora from both sampling locations was represented by three cyanobacteria morphospecies, Synechococcus sp. (18.78%), Gloeocapsa sp. (12.20%), Chroococcus sp. (4.94%). The cells were enclosed in hyaline mucilage and with cells usually aggregating in large numbers to form colonies. Gloeocapsa sp. cells were spherical, blue- green homogeneous contents, enclosed by wide colorless sheaths, of diameter 2-4m, with sheaths 4-8m. Chloroococcus sp. cells were spherical,  sometimes hemispherical after division, united cell in colonies of two sheath, sheath is colorless and the individual cells were large; 20-28m in diameter. According to DNA sequence analysis, cyanobacteria l was closely related to Synechococcus sp, (99% similarity), cyanobacteria ll was found to be similar to Gloeocapsa sp. (97% similarity) and cyanobacteria lll was Chroococcus sp. (95% similarity).

 

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Published

2019-05-25

How to Cite

Aisha, M. A. ., El-Garj, F. M. A. ., & Maznah, W. (2019). MORPHOLOGICAL, MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION AND CONTROL OF CYANOBACTERIA FROM WALL PAINTINGS AT NIAH, SARAWAK, TEMBURONG AND PERAK CAVES IN MALAYSIA. EPH - International Journal of Applied Science, 8(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.53555/ephas.v1i1.1384