EPH - International Journal of Humanities and Social Science (ISSN: 2208-2174) http://ephjournal.org/index.php/hss <p><strong> <span id="cell-6-name" class="gridCellContainer"> <span class="label"> EPH - International Journal of Humanities and Social Science (ISSN: 2208-2174)</span></span>&nbsp;</strong> publishes a wide range of high quality research articles in the field (but not limited to) given below: Anthropology, Archaeology, Business Management, Business studies, Communication studies, Corporate Governance, Corporate organization, Criminology, Cross cultural, studies, Demography, Development Studies, Economics, Education etc.<br><span style="font-size: 1.5em;"><strong> <span style="text-shadow: #ff6600 0px 0px 3px;">Current Impact Factor: 1.866</span></strong></span></p> EPH Journal en-US EPH - International Journal of Humanities and Social Science (ISSN: 2208-2174) 2208-2174 <ul> <li>All contributor(s) agree to transfer the copyright of this article to <strong>EPH Journal.</strong></li> <li><strong>EPH Journal</strong> will have all the rights to distribute, share, sell, modify this research article with proper reference of the contributors.&nbsp;</li> <li><strong>EPH Journal</strong> will have the right to edit or completely remove the published article on any misconduct happening.</li> </ul> TOTIC: Portuguese Pre- Colonial and Colonial Diplomatic Agents of Territorial Exploration and Exploitation of Sao - Tome and Principe Islands of the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean 1485-1975 http://ephjournal.org/index.php/hss/article/view/1802 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;The present article brings out typologies of pre-colonial and colonial great figures that strongly coordinated, moderated and put in radical human forces of European exploration, exploitation and colonisation activities in the overseas colonies in Sub-Saharan Africa with examples drawn from the following important lucrative region known as the Gulf of Guinea within the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS). The two countries used as our case studies include Sao-Tome and Principe from 1485 to 1975 (490 years) with 210 official agents remarkably during the&nbsp; &nbsp;pre-colonial and colonial periods. Considering the fact that most history books at times mentioned only few colonial administrators of the Continent, we therefore deemed it necessary to carry out this research on the various portfolios of specific foreign actors in full beginning from pre-colonial to end of colonial exploitations. The pre-colonial era brings out some of the foreign agents who in one way or the other prepared the ground work for deeper colonial partition, expropriation, expansion, exploitation and exaggerations of colonial activities as the best means to compensate themselves from the natural providence of the Black Continent in terms of natural and human resources well accessible in to the Atlantic Ocean. The work is divided into two parts using a chronological approach as indicated on the various tables and it brings out the total number of all prominent pre-colonial and colonial agents of the two countries. The scrutiny of specialized documents based on the pre-colonial and colonial Africa actually inspired us in the writing of this paper which can open new avenues to future researchers to find out in detail which of the Portuguese agent did what and when during their tenure of offices characterized with changing portfolios and revision of radical exploitative colonial policies colonialism.</p> DR. NJUAFAC KENEDY (Ph.D) FONJU Copyright (c) 2021 EPH - International Journal of Humanities and Social Science (ISSN: 2208-2174) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-07-15 2021-07-15 7 7 18 38 TOPIC: The Challenges of Russian Contemporary Engagements in Southern African States 1991-2019 http://ephjournal.org/index.php/hss/article/view/1801 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This paper deals with the challenges of Russian relations with thirty years of Russo- Southern African relations between 1991 and 2019, following the closure of several diplomatic services and questionable engagements of nuclear extension in the region with a hiding agenda of the 21<sup>st</sup> Century. Her incapacity to continue running some of &nbsp;her embassies in the region was due to lack of financial resources which resulted from the collapse of&nbsp; the &nbsp;Cold War and disintegration of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) into Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in 1991.The devastated &nbsp;Russian economy could only left her behind unrealistic foreign agenda that was perfectly destroyed by Mikhail Gorbachev’s hasty declaration of Glasnost and Perestroika as&nbsp; new international norms which facilitated the United States of America (U.S.A) to re-gain a unique prominent position as the Policeman of the World. This meant that Russian engagements with Sub-Saharan African countries were now in a handicap and dangerous stance towards the 21<sup>st</sup> Century. What then constituted Soviet Union’s lateness of foreign policy initiative towards Africa’s, challenges of the 1990s and new patterns of Russian relations and initiatives of exploiting natural resources and setting up of nuclear agenda in Southern African States are the main concerns of this study. With the adoption of a historical approach, the scrutiny of specialised sources concerning this question enabled us to come out with finding that, contemporary Russian attempt to aggressively &nbsp;reinforce relations with specific Southern African countries pave the way forward of &nbsp;Great Fear in case of any nuclear war in the 21<sup>st</sup> Century. That Southern and Central African leaders of Sub-Saharan Africa should be aware that the previous Cold War Super-Power competition was over but it took a new form in the face of a unique Hyper- Power position dominated by the United States in the Post-Cold War era which the crumbled Russia is recently bend to correct some of her mistakes through deeper penetration of main strategic zones of Africa as a means of preparing and multiplying her networks of attacks and defense in the Atlantic and India Oceans. This engagement with the Southern African Development Community (SADC) is very pertinent after thirty years of the collapsed of USSR and new orientations in international relations and international political economy with the challenges of the 21<sup>st</sup> Century Unite States.and China Hyper-economic positions in the global economic system with U.S Hyper-Power position in international politics as a unique policeman of the World.</p> DR. NJUAFAC KENEDY FONJU Copyright (c) 2021 EPH - International Journal of Humanities and Social Science (ISSN: 2208-2174) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-07-15 2021-07-15 7 7 01 17